1970 DoD Report Warns of Bleeding Following Jet Injections

Jet Injectors = Jet Infectors

March 19, 2016

1970 DoD Report

On May 25th of 1970 the Department of the Army, Navy and Air Force released a joint report, titled simply Immunization. This report, listed various vaccinations used upon military personnel, methods of administration and possible reactions. Moreover, the report conspicuously yet unalarmingly disclosed a little fact that corroborates the testimonies of thousands of veterans—the presence of blood following jet injection vaccinations.

In fact, the presence of blood is mentioned several times. The section Techniques for Administering Vaccines reads in regards to jet injection,

“(5) If the injection site bleeds, a pledget of cotton should be firmly applied, since oozing may continue for several minutes” [emphasis added] (see page 7).

Herein blood is produced even in spite of the device being used properly. This is distinguished separately from bleeding due to improper use as highlighted briefly in point (4).

“(4) A clean area of skin in the triceps area is selected. The site is sponged with acetone (or alcohol) and permitted to dry. If the arm is wet, the injector may slip during ejection of the stream, resulting in a cut. After the skin has dried, the nozzle of the cocked ejector is held firmly against the arm, the trigger squeezed and the pressure on the arm maintained for a count of three” [emphasis added] (see page 7).

Under the heading Smallpox Vaccine, the report cautioned in regards to jet injection:

“A 3–4 mm. wheal usually appears; a pledget of sterile cotton should be applied to the injection site to control the occasional show of blood” [emphasis added] (see page 11).

No matter the type of injection, whether a standard vaccination or the more shallow and superficial smallpox vaccination, the presence of blood at the injection site was observed.

This report’s acknowledgement of the presence of blood during the height of mass jet injector vaccinations by three branches of the US military, corroborates the testimonies of veterans.
Yet the report also stated:

“While the nozzle is not sterilized between recipients, there has been no evidence of serum contamination or of transmitted disease.”

Here lies a conundrum, how can there be no evidence of serum contamination on the nozzle of the jet injector when the jet injection caused the vaccinee to bleed?

To state that there was “no evidence of serum contamination or of transmitted disease” would imply a surveillance program was in place or scientific study was conducted. Although, a review of scientific and military literature is negative for any published safety and evaluation testing or surveillance program prior to the release of this report. Published studies only reported on the efficacy and bioavailability of jet injection. Meaning the studies focused on the ability of the jet injector to produce a desired result when administering a specific medication.

Logic states if such safety and evaluation testing was conducted, and produced negative results, the US military would have widely boasted of its accomplishment. There would be more than just an invalidated assertion in a report.

To say that serum contamination just does not happen is pure ignorance. However, this is the reality. Many people of the era, scientists included, believed that since there is no needle the risk of cross-contamination is eliminated.

Numerous studies on the safety of jet injectors have found serum contamination on the nozzle and inside the jet injector. Jet Infectors’ series, Faulty Design Created Inherent Risk, explicitly and definitively demonstrates serum contamination of the nozzle.

A full copy of the DoD’s 1970 report is accessible here: 1970 (May 25) Army, Navy, Air Force- Immunization- 5052-15A

Copyright Notice
© Shaun Brown and Jet Infectors, 2017. Veterans are encouraged to use these documents as evidence within their VA claims. Any other use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Shaun Brown and Jet Infectors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Fair Use Notice
In accordance with the Fair Use Law (17 U.S.C. § 107), copyrighted sources cited within this website are distributed without profit and are presented for educational, research, and in some cases critical analysis purposes. For these reasons authorization from the copyrighted holders has not been obtained. If you wish to use the copyrighted material for purposes that go beyond the Fair Use Law 17 U.S.C. § 107, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Ped-O-Jet Inventor Omits Hepatitis Transmission Possible

Jet Injectors = Jet Infectors

March 17, 2016

In 1958, the media heavily reported on the Army’s introduction of a needleless vaccination device capable of administering mass vaccinations. The device, known as the Multidose Jet Injection Device, was co-invented by Lieutenant Colonel Abram Benenson, M.D. and Aaron Ismach. This device became more commonly known as the Ped-O-Jet due to later development of a non-electrical foot-pump model.

Benenson responded to the risk of transmitting serum hepatitis in this 1958 newspaper article: “The jet gun still touches a person’s arm so there is a ‘remote possibility of contamination,’ colonel Benenson said. But this chance is so slim it’s almost nonexistent.”

The last sentence is no more than a manipulative advertising technique. A hazard is not diminished because someone says so, even if that person is a doctor. The importance lies in Benenson’s assertion that there is a “remote possibility” that his invention, the most widely-used jet injector within the Armed Forces, could transmit serum hepatitis.

Here is the article in its entirety.

July 9, 1958
El Paso Herald-Post
El Paso, Texas

Army to Replace Needle With Jet
By Scripp-Howard

WASHINGTON, July 9. — The Army is going to plunge the doctor’s needle into semi-retirement this fall. Before year’s end, all mass inoculations among soldiers will be given with painless “jet guns” instead of painful needles. The jet-propelled injectors are not only painless. They are safer and faster than the customary needle-and-syringe.

Guns on Order
Lieut. Col., Abram S. Benenson, director of immunology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research here, said today a Battery of jet guns is on order for delivery late this year. He said the Army will use them for all mass inoculations as a matter of routine. The needle will be reserved for individual cases or small groups. Col. Beneson said the jet injectors work so fast it’s hard to keep up with them. For instance, a jet gun is capable of “shooting” 1200 soldiers an hour –one every three seconds. But so far the record for injections is “only” 734 an hour.

Fires Through Skin
The problem is one of moving men fast enough through the “shot” line to keep the jet injector working at top speed. The jet gun fires vaccine through the skin without puncturing it–consequently no pain. It’s also safer, than a needle-which sometimes can suck blood out of one person and jab it into another during large-scale inoculations. In this way, the virus of serum hepatitis — “yellow jaundice” — can be passed from a silent carrier to a previously uninfected individual. The jet gun still touches a person’s arm so there is a “remote possibility of contamination,” colonel Benenson said. “But this chance is so slim it’s almost nonexistent.” [emphasis added]

Used in Thailand
The colonel said a jet injector has been used with troops in Europe and is working fine. Several such guns also were pressed into service recently in Thailand, where the Army pitched in with the World Health Organization for mass inoculations to prevent spread of a cholera outbreak. A jet gun can be operated by one physician and four helpers.

1958 El Paso Herald Post 1

1958 El Paso Herald Post 2

1958 El Paso Herald Post 3

1958 El Paso Herald Post 4

Copyright Notice
© Shaun Brown and Jet Infectors, 2017. Veterans are encouraged to use these documents as evidence within their VA claims. Any other use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Shaun Brown and Jet Infectors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Fair Use Notice
In accordance with the Fair Use Law (17 U.S.C. § 107), copyrighted sources cited within this website are distributed without profit and are presented for educational, research, and in some cases critical analysis purposes. For these reasons authorization from the copyrighted holders has not been obtained. If you wish to use the copyrighted material for purposes that go beyond the Fair Use Law 17 U.S.C. § 107, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Army’s 1959 Introduction of the Ped-O-Jet Injector

Jet Injectors = Jet Infectors

March 6, 2016

military jet injector vaccinations

In the late 1950s, Aaron Ismach and Abram Benenson developed a jet injection device, originally known as the Multidose Jet Injection Device. This device became more commonly known as the Ped-O-Jet due to later development of a non-electrical foot-pump model. At the time, Mr. Ismach was a civilian scientist working for the US Army Medical Equipment and Research Development Laboratory at Fort Totten, New York and Dr. Benenson was a Colonel in the US Army Medical Corps.

Ismach and Benenson’s device was capable of inoculating 1,000 persons an hour. A novel invention for it’s time. The device allowed for rapid and expedient immunization of a large population. In a military setting, the device allowed for the mass immunization of recruits in bootcamps, training facilities and depots.

Multidose Jet Injection Device

Benenson reported on the introduction of this device in his 1959 article Mass Immunization By Jet Injection.

1959 Benenson- Mass immunization by jet injection-1

(photo by Benenson, 1959)

In the article Benenson reported:

There have been no reactions suggesting intravenous infection in over 100,000 injections despite occasional bleeding indicating that the jet had traversed a blood vessel; this may well be explained by the fact that when one milliliter of material is diffused through the tissues, only insignificantly small amounts could possibly enter a vessel. Obviously one should not inject over a major vessel (emphasis added).

Benenson later wrote, “bleeding from the point of entry has been noted in 5 to 10% of recipients.” His initial investigations found,

when it [bleeding] does occur, the blood continues to ooze staining the shirt, perhaps because infiltration of vaccine into the tissue interferes with normal clotting mechanism. This bleeding is simply controlled by applying pressure for a short period of time with a pledget of absorbent cotton. Increased bleeding and immediate wheal formation are found with incorrect orifice design. When the injector is not held firmly so that the tip moves while vaccine is being discharged, the skin can be cut; this is minimized by proper technique, a dry skin and a roughened surface on the jet nozzle.

Moreover, Benenson reported,

The problem of hepatitis has been minimized. After each of the five different injection sessions, with no cleansing of the nozzle between a total of 762 recipients, the nozzle was soaked in saline and then precipitin tests were set up with rabbit and horse antihuman serum. The results were negative, indicating the presence of less than 15 gammas of human serum, if any (emphasis added).

For those of us who do not know, a gamma is an out-dated term for a unit of measurement. François Cardarelli (2003) explains in the Encyclopedia of Scientific Units, a gamma is a unit of measure of mass equal to one microgram (1µg).

Benenson reported, “the presence of less than 15 gammas of human serum” on the nozzle of the Ped-O-Jet style-like injector after administering 762 injections. 15 gammas of human serum equates to 15 micrograms.

To put this into perspective based upon advances in modern science, in 1984 Feinman and colleagues reported the minimum volume of blood capable of transmitting the hepatitis B virus to be 10 picoliters (Feinman et al., 1984).

In a 2013 interview, Dr. Peter Hoffman, an epidemiologist at the United Kingdom’s Health Protection Agency, estimated the minimum volume of blood capable of transmitting the hepatitis C virus is estimated to be 100 picoliters (Hoffman, 2013).

In doing the math, 15 micrograms converts to 0.015 microliters, or rather 15,000 picoliters. Therefore, this 15 gammas of human serum is capable of holding 1,500 hepatitis B virions and 150 hepatitis C virions.

So the question arises: If 5 to 10 percent of recipients bleed, how much blood was present within the internal components and upon the nozzle between each injection? After administering 762 injections the nozzle was soaked in saline as a prerequisite for conducting a precipitin test. Although, based upon the saline mixture used, did any of the blood dissolve in the salt solution (saline)? Essentially how reliable was the test conducted?

Weniger, Jones, and Chen (2008) reported of Benenson’s study stating that the, “military [was] unable to detect surrogates for viral agents in assays available in that era.”

Herein, the most widely used jet injector within the United States military was noted for “occasional bleeding,” whereupon the “the problem of hepatitis” could only be “minimized” and not eliminated. Interesting wordage—problem of hepatitis. Not “risk” of hepatitis. Problem.

Although this study reported no cross-contamination, the study was blind to the later advancements science procured. HCV was discovered in 1989. The transmissibility rate of HBV was discovered in 1984. The unit of measurement known as a picoliter, which is roughly a million times smaller than a period on this page, was recognized in 1960.

Upon further review, it could have been possible for hepatitis virions to have been transmitted in the amount of blood reported during the administration of the Multidose Jet Injector in Benenson’s 1959 report.

Reference:

  • Benenson AS. Mass immunization by jet injection. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium of Immunology, Opatija, Yugoslavia, 28 September—1 October 1959 (International Committee for Microbiological Standardization, Secton of the International Association of Microbiological Societies). Zagreb: Tiskara Izdavackog zavoda Jugoslavenske akademije; 1959;393–399 [Library of Congress QW 504 I60p 1959].
  • Feinman SV, et al. DNA: DNA hybridization method for the diagnosis of hepatitis B infection. J Virol Methods 1984;8(3):199-206.
  • François Cardarelli (2003). Encyclopedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Springer-Verlag London Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.
  • Hoffman, PN. Personal communication. February 28, 2013.
  • Weniger BC, Jones TS, & Chen RT. The Unintended Consequences of Vaccine Delivery Devices Used to Eradicate Smallpox: Lessons for Evaluating Future Vaccination Methods. 2008.

Copyright Notice
© Shaun Brown and Jet Infectors, 2017. Veterans are encouraged to use these documents as evidence within their VA claims. Any other use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Shaun Brown and Jet Infectors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Fair Use Notice
In accordance with the Fair Use Law (17 U.S.C. § 107), copyrighted sources cited within this website are distributed without profit and are presented for educational, research, and in some cases critical analysis purposes. For these reasons authorization from the copyrighted holders has not been obtained. If you wish to use the copyrighted material for purposes that go beyond the Fair Use Law 17 U.S.C. § 107, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.